Two years ago, you might remember that there were thousands, probably millions, of these little balls on the ground under oak trees. After some research, I learned that they are succulent oak galls, caused by being punctured by a cynipid wasp. The leaf grows a ball of unusual cells around the irritation, where the wasp has laid an egg. Thus the egg has a nice safe home in which to develop.
Two years ago, almost all the galls had fallen to the ground. Yesterday, I found some still attached to a white oak leaf. And this picture shows the color variety better too.
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